Monday, October 16, 2017

Catalan president Carles Puigdemont must say clearly whether or not he declared independence last week, or he faces the suspension of Catalonia's autonomy.





Spain’s High Court has remanded two leaders of a Catalan independence organization on suspicion of sedition. 

The prosecution alleges them to be the key figures in organizing the recent independence referendum, which was deemed illegal by Madrid.

The leader of the Catalan National Assembly (ANC), Jordi Sanchez, and Jordi Cuixart of the Omnium Cultural group were jailed on Monday after questioning.

The two men will not be allowed to post bail and remain in custody.

The Catalan regional police chief, Maj. Josep Lluis Trapero, and colleague Lt. Teresa Laplana were also questioned on Monday, but unlike the Catalan independence activists they have avoided jail. 

The police officials, however, were forced to give up their passports and have to appear in court every two weeks.


Democracy and Class Struggle says the internal forces in Catalonia are key at this stage as CUP has indicated and they proved themselves in practice in the Referendum not relying on international support which will come later.

The People of Catalonia need leadership that will lead to independence not a bargain among the bourgeoisie - those well known profit patriots - as we have repeatedly said the working class needs to give direction to national liberation for the Catalan Republic which exists in the People.

The Trump Mad Dog Art collection hits the Streets of Seoul - South Korea - Art Against Mad Dog of War



Democracy and Class Struggle says these posters which can be found all over Seoul need no translation - seems they arrived by balloon and some arrived directly at the Blue House.

Advance on Kirkuk by South Front

Attack on Kirkuk - “a flagrant declaration of war against the nation of Kurdistan,”



ERBIL, Kurdistan Region – The Peshmerga General Command has said in a statement that the attack on Kirkuk by the Iranian Quds-backed Iraqi forces and the mainly Shiite Hashd al-Shaabi is “a flagrant declaration of war against the nation of Kurdistan,” and warned that the government of the Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi should pay a “heavy price” for initiating the conflict.

It said that the military incursion into the Peshmerga controlled areas in the oil-province of Kirkuk is in retaliation against the right of the people to vote on their fate, a reference to the Kurdish independence vote held last month that saw 92.7 percent of the people voting to leave Iraq.

The Peshmerga command also accused some of the Kurdish commanders of the ruling Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) whom it said were complicit when the Iraqi forces made rapid advances against the positions of Kurdish security forces, including an oil field and key infrastructure in the province. The PUK has denied the accusations.

It continued to say that the Iraqi forces, including the Hashd, used American weapons they received for the war against ISIS.

Following is the full text of the statement published by the Peshmerga General Command on Monday afternoon:


Beloved citizens of Kurdistan

Public opinion inside and outside Kurdistan

The Hashd al-Shaabi forces affiliated with the Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guards’ Quds force led by Eqbalpur, in cooperation with Iraqi forces started a broad attack on Kirkuk and its surrounding areas this morning, October 16, 2017. This attack is a flagrant declaration of war against the nation of Kurdistan.

This attack, waged by the Iraqi government, Hashd al-Shaabi and forces associated with the Headquarters of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards’ Quds force, is in retaliation against the people of Kurdistan who have asked for freedom. It is revenge against the honorable people of Kirkuk who have shown bravery. 

Unfortunately, some officials from the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) helped this plot against the Kurdistan nation and committed a great and historic treason against Kurdistan and the martyrs who sacrificed their lives for Kurdistan under the PUK flag. These officials have left some sensitive places for the Hashd forces and Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guards without fighting and have abandoned Mr. Kosrat [Rasul] alone.

We declare this to every party that this attack by the Hashd and Iraqi forces was launched by American weapons, armored vehicles, tanks and other coalition weapons. These American weapons have been given to the Iraqi army and Hashd under the name of the war on ISIS. This was done at a time when the Peshmerga, also in the fight against ISIS, were not given necessary weapons to defend themselves against the terrorists. 

We hereby reassure the people of Kurdistan that Kurdistan’s Peshmerga forces is defending bravely with high morale on every front despite having some impurity on the part of some officials and plots by the Iraqi government and the Islamic Revolutionary Guards. We also reiterate that it is impossible for the will of the people of Kurdistan to be broken by these plots and also impossible for us to allow the enemies of the people of Kurdistan to succeed.

We call upon all the real Peshmerga of the country and the resilient and enemy-defeating people to do all they can to resist and defeat the attackers. The first person responsible for selling this war to the people of Kurdistan is Abadi’s government that should pay a heavy price for this unfairness.


General Command of Kurdistan’s Peshmerga Forces

Sun Jingxian views on Great Leap Forward Famine Deaths consistent with 7000 Cadre Conference in 1962



Democracy and Class Struggle republishes this article on background to the new research in China into the Great Leap Forward Famine particularly by the mathematician Sun Jingxian. 

Sun Jingxian work is summarised here 


https://democracyandclasstruggle.blogspot.co.uk/2017/10/sun-jingxian-exposes-anti-mao-anti.html


In fact the two line struggle over this issue is being decided in China and not by neo liberal Hayekian propagandists like Frank Dikotter but by our brothers and sisters and comrades  in China.



Even in formal evaluations of the past, the Party has been coy about publicly acknowledging the Famine.

At the time, the international scholarly community had only limited access to reliable statistical information – indeed, the first clear indication of the scale of the crisis came in the form of demographic analysis done by Ansley Coale in 1981 using newly released official statistical data.

The prevailing view at the ‘Seven Thousand Cadres’ conference, convened in January 1962 to forge a consensus within the Party about the Great Leap Forward, was that there had been serious agricultural problems and even some deaths from malnutrition in isolated districts; these problems and deaths had been caused primarily by natural disasters, and were aggravated by counter-revolutionary forces within certain local governments.

The 1981 Central Committee ‘Resolution on Party history’ revised this view to describe the period 1959-1961 as one in which ‘the national economy suffered serious difficulties, and both the nation and the people suffered major setbacks’.

Emboldened by the critical stance taken by the Party in the early Reform era in regard to the social and economic problems of the Mao era, the State Statistical Bureau (SSB) released previously data that indicated that a demographic crisis had occurred in China in the late 1950s.

Relying on the newly released data, including annual crude mortality figures and the detailed results of the first three population censuses conducted in the PRC, several groups of demographers concluded that around twenty-seven to thirty million people had died of famine-related causes between 1957 and 1962.

From the mid-1990s, a number of historians and journalists drew on the results of internal party investigations or archival sources not endorsed by the SSB to claim the death toll was considerably higher.

The most influential of these was Yang Jisheng who, in his two-volume chronicle of the famine published in 2008, Tombstone endorsed a figure of thirty-six million deaths.

In 2013-2014, the intervention of the Mass Line Education and Practice Campaign in famine research seems to have been set on raising doubts about the accuracy of all of these estimates, with a focus on the work of Yang in particular.

The intervention started with an article by Sun Jingxian a mathematics professor from Jiangsu Normal University, which appeared on 23 August 2013 in the Chinese Social Sciences Weekly produced by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS).

The timing of the article was significant, coming four days after Xi Jinping convened an internal Party conference to establish the Ideological Work agenda of his administration.

As the China Media Project investigative journalist and media analyst Qian Gang has pointed out, this was a peculiar week in PRC media history: while the General Political Department of the PLA and the Central Propaganda Bureau strongly promoted an interpretation of Xi’s speech that emphasised the need for ‘positive propaganda and public opinion struggle’ the tone of the official summary of the speech reported in the People’s Daily was far milder.

The tone and content of Sun’s article fits squarely within the Central Department of Propaganda’s interpretation of Xi’s speech.

In the opening line of his article, Sun characterised the view that ‘thirty million people starved to death during the Three Difficult Years’ as being nothing more than a ‘massive rumour’  one disseminated by Yang Jisheng as well as the likes of Cao Shuji , Jin Hui  Ding Shu and Wang Weizhi scholars and others who had produced the estimates of famine mortality that Yang Jisheng considered credible.

Sun argued that claims that there had been thirty million or more famine-related deaths in the Great Leap Forward era were based on statistical fallacies.

According to Sun, China’s household registration data had been skewed by large-scale rural-to-urban migration during the Great Leap Forward and the subsequent repatriation of tens of millions of registered urban residents to the countryside.

This gave rise to the appearance of mass population loss during those years, whereas in fact the missing people were alive and well and were gradually reintegrated within the household population registers.


Sun concluded that in a ‘very few’ districts, such as Xinyang prefecture, fewer than 2.5 million people in total had died of ‘nutritional deaths’.


The latter term was a broad morbidity class which included deaths caused by edema and other nutrition-related illnesses as well as a small number of deaths caused directly by starvation.

He said he used several different methods of statistical analysis to verify his conclusions.

His conclusion is,  consistent with the evaluation of the Great Leap Forward that was determined and on party history at the Seven Thousand Cadres conference of 1962.

He had fully elaborated his argument about the effect of migration on the data two years previously in a piece published in Studies in Marxism a journal also published by CASS.

In this earlier work Sun had taken aim not at Yang Jisheng but rather at Jiang Zhenghua  a cyberneticist-turned-demographer who, supported by a national research grant, estimated that the Great Famine had caused seventeen million excess deaths, the lowest of the serious estimates of famine mortality.

Even though Yang was not mentioned in the 2011 article, he responded to it in great detail on his blog.

What was remarkable about Sun’s more recent article was that the editorial committee of a major official publication had sanctioned the use of the term ‘grand rumour’ to characterise new research on the famine.

Sun had used the term ‘grand rumour’ in this way before, at a public forum in 2009 hosted by the neo-Maoist online publisher ‘Utopia’ on the ‘True Face of Population Change in the 1960s’.

But for such an expression to appear in the Chinese Social Sciences Weekly indicated a high-level of official endorsement.

With this official stamp of approval, Sun was able to publish an opinion piece in the Global Times on 5 September 2013, and a second article in the Chinese Social Sciences Weekly  four days later that listed ten errors he claimed to have found in Yang Jisheng’s Tombstone.

Over the following months, he elaborated on various aspects of his population research in a string of articles that appeared in journals managed by the Party’s Central Department of Propaganda, including Red Flag Manuscripts and The Observer

Sun’s thesis was also the focal point of a book by an independent scholar affiliated with ‘Utopia’ named Yang Songlin  published in August 2013 (though not approved for distribution through retail book stores), and of a collection of papers attacking various ‘rumours’ about party history that appeared in December 2013.

The editors of the latter collection were Li Shenming  head of the Institute of World Socialism  at CASS, the home of the journal Studies in Marxism, and Li Jie  head of the Institute of Contemporary Chinese Studies  both of whom at the time were serving vice-presidents of CASS.

SEE ALSO:

https://democracyandclasstruggle.blogspot.co.uk/2017/10/sun-jingxian-exposes-anti-mao-anti.html

http://democracyandclasstruggle.blogspot.co.uk/2016/05/joseph-ball-critique-on-frank-dikotters.html


http://democracyandclasstruggle.blogspot.co.uk/2016/05/the-great-leap-forward-by-dongpin-han.html

Catalonia refuses to make clear if it will declare independence from Spain



Democracy and Class Struggle says hesitation is a hallmark of bourgeois leadership of national liberation struggles - time for the working class to take direction of the national struggle in Catalonia.

The anti-capitalist CUP formation said that last October 10 "missed a great opportunity", and defends that, in the face of the impossibility of finding international support, it should be taken into account the more than two million people who voted in the referendum of 1 of October.

"Those who defended their schools against the violence that displayed military and police occupation and those who were beaten, injured, humiliated and frightened by the National Police and the Civil Guard," says the CUP, "are already Republic." 

That is why its militants ask the President to respond to the call of Rajoy with the unequivocal will of the Catalans and Catalans.




Sunday, October 15, 2017

Iberia - Changing Times - Birth of the Catalan Republic in 2017




                                                       Borders always change


Sun Jingxian exposes anti Mao anti Communist lies about Great Leap Forward death toll but David Harvey still repeats them



Democracy and Class Struggle is republishing an article by Sun Jingxian of Jiangsu Normal University as we have recently heard a Marxist scholar like David Harvey repeat the anti communist and anti Mao lies about the death toll in the Great Leap Forward.

We expect such nonsense from our enemies but not our friends.


Democracy and Class Struggle on the 40th Anniversary of Chairman Mao Zedong's death pubished an  important document published in 2013 by Sun Jingxian of  Jiangsu Normal University translated into English which challenges the dominant Western anti Mao narrative on the Great Leap Forward death toll, it was translated by Miss Dawn Chenyang Li.

For those who want a more detailed analysis of Sun Jingxian's pathbreaking work than the summary presented below visit here :

http://icaps.nsysu.edu.tw/ezfiles/122/1122/img/2375/CCPS2(1)-Sun.pdf





孙经先:“饿死三千万”不是事实
2013年08月23日
 来源:《中国社会科学报》2013年8月23日 第492期
作者:孙经先
“30 million people starving to death” is not true

By Sun Jingxian
Source: Chinese Social Science News, 23 Aug 2013, Issue 492
【核心提示】站在今天的角度看,那三年间出现250万人“营养性死亡”,既是天灾,也是人祸,历史的教训值得深刻汲取;但是,片面地、无端地夸大非正常死亡人数,并不是严谨的学风,更无助于正确地总结历史的经验教训,坚定今日的前行方向。

[Summary] From today’s perspective, in those 3 years when 2.5 million people perished due to “nutrition-related deaths”, it’s a natural disaster as well as a human failing. We should certainly learn the lesson of history. However, to partially and groundlessly exaggerate the number of deaths is not a scientific approach, and cannot contribute to learning from historical experiences in order to march ahead more determinedly today.

最近30年来,国内外广泛流传着我国三年困难时期“饿死三千万”的重大谣言。这一说法被一些人看成是“历史的定论”,被写进了许多专著和文献,并且在全社会广泛流传。那么,事实的真相又是什么呢?

In the last 30 years or so, in both China and abroad the great lie of “30 million people starving to death” during the Three Year Famine Period managed to spread widely. Some people see this statement as a “historical fact”, and it has been written into many professional books and documents, spreading across the entire society. But what is the actual truth of this matter?

1983年,国家统计局公布了1949—1982年我国每年的户籍统计人口数据。这一数据显示我国三年困难时期出现了人口统计数字大幅度减少的情况,其表现为1960—1964年间我国人口总数在扣除了人口自然增长(由人口出生和死亡产生的增长)后异常减少了2644万人,其中最突出的是1960年比1959年净减1000万人。 这一时期我国人口统计数据产生这一大幅度减少的真实原因长期以来一直没有搞清楚。一些人就把我国人口统计数据的这一大量异常减少解释为是由三千万以上的人非正常死亡造成的,这样就出现了“饿死三千万”的说法。

In 1983, the National Statistics Bureau published the annual population data of our country from 1949 to 1982. This data shows that during the Three Year Famine Period, the population figure decreased dramatically. More specifically during 1960-1964, apart from the natural growth of population (due to natural births and deaths), the total population abnormally decreased by 26.44 million people, and most dramatically the population in 1960 was less than the figure in 1959 by a net value of 10 million. The real reason for this significant decrease in the population statistical data has not been clarified for a long time. Therefore some people assert that it was due to the abnormal death of over 30 million people. This is how the idea of “30 million people starving to death” came about.

为了揭露“饿死三千万”的荒谬性,就必须对这一期间我国户籍统计人口数量大幅度减少的真正原因作出正确、符合实际的分析。从2010年下半年开始,笔者用了整整三年的时间对这一问题进行系统研究,得到了以下几个基本结论。

In order to show how ridiculous the idea of “30 million people starving to death” is, one must correctly analyse the real reason for the dramatic decrease in population figures during this period. Starting from the second half of 2010, I have used three entire years to systematically research into this issue, and I have reached the following conclusions.

第一个基本结论:在1959年底以前,由于工业发展的需要和“大跃进”运动的发动,我国出现了从农村到市镇的人口大迁移,至少有3000万以上农村人口迁移到市镇。在这一过程中产生了重报虚报户籍人口1162万人,即这些人虽然已经迁移到市镇并办理了户籍登记手续,但是他们并没有在原籍农村注销户籍(他们在市镇和农村同时拥有户籍)。

First Conclusion: Before the end of 1959, due to the needs of industrial development and the Great Leap Forward movement, in our country there was a huge migration of people from rural to urban areas. At least over 30 million people moved from the countryside into cities and towns. During this process there was a duplication or erroneous reporting of population figures by 11.62 million, which means that even though these people already migrated to urban regions and registered on the urban hukou [hukou = China’s household registration system – translator] system, but they did not delete themselves from their original rural hukou. (That is to say, they were registered on the urban and rural systems at the same time)

第二个基本结论:在1959年以前,由于户籍管理制度不健全,在我国(主要是广大农村地区)存在着较为严重的死亡漏报现象。根据1953年和1957年两次抽样调查的结果,可以估计出我国这一期间产生的死亡漏报人口约为750万,即有750万人在1959年以前已经死亡,但没有进行死亡登记注销户籍。 由于以上两方面原因,造成我国1959年底的户籍统计人口总数中,存在着应注销户籍人口1912万,占当时全国人口总数的2.84%。 山东省的情况证实了上述结论。山东省在1959年底进行了一次农村人口普查,发现全省存在应注销户籍人口152万人。如果按照山东省的比例,全国存在的应注销户籍人口数应为1890万。这与我们研究得到的数字(1912万)是非常接近的。这一事实证明了我们的研究结论是符合实际的。

Second Conclusion: Before 1959, due to flaws in the hukou management system, in our country (especially in the vast rural regions) there existed a severe problem of not reporting deaths. According to data from 1953 and 1957, one can estimate that during this period around 7.5 million deaths were not registered, that is to say, around 7.5 million people already died before 1959 but their hukou registers were not deleted. Due to both of these errors, at the end of 1959 there were 19.12 million hukou registers that should have been deleted, this was around 2.84% of the entire national population at the time. The specific situation in Shandong Province proves this conclusion. A general population censor was carried out in Shandong Province at the end of 1959, and it was discovered that there were 1.52 million people whose hukou registers should have been deleted. Extrapolating according to the ratio of the population of Shandong Province to the national population, it implies that the number of people who should have been removed from the hukou registers was around 18.90 million. This is very close to the figure of 19.12 million which was reached through our research. This fact proves that our research conclusions do correspond with the actual reality.

第三个基本结论:我国在1960年前后进行了实施《户口登记条例》的工作,1964年进行了全国第二次人口普查,上述虚假户籍人口1912万的户籍在这两次户籍整顿活动中被注销。

Third Conclusion: Around 1960 China carried out the work specified in the “Hukou Registration Legislation”, and in 1964 the second general national population censor was carried out. The duplicate and erroneous 19.12 million hukou registers were removed during these two instances of population data work.

第四个基本结论:由于我国经济出现重大困难,在1960年到1963年间开展了大规模精简市镇人口运动,3000万以上的市镇人口被精简返回农村。在这一过程中产生漏报户籍人口数1482万人,即这些人从市镇被精简并注销户籍,但他们没有及时在农村办理户籍迁入手续,成为没有户籍的人(这些人口在1965—1979年间重新登记了户籍)。

Fourth Conclusion: Because our national economy experienced very severe problems during this period, from 1960 to 1963 a large scale movement to streamline the urban population was carried out. Over 30 million urban people were streamlined and went back to the countryside. During this process however 14.82 million people did not have their hukou registers changed properly. These people’s urban hukou were deleted, but they did not promptly register their new rural hukou, and therefore became people who were not registered on the hukou system. (They all re-registered their hukou during the later period of 1965-1979)

由于以上第三个和第四个基本结论所叙述的原因,造成1960—1964年间我国户籍统计人口(不考虑自然增长)减少了3394万(其中1162万重报虚报户籍人口被注销、750万死亡漏报人口被注销、1482万漏报户籍人口)。这是我国这一期间户籍统计人口数大量减少的真正原因。这些减少都仅仅是统计数据数字的减少,并不是这一时期实际人口的真实减少。这些减少与这一期间我国实际人口的变化没有关系,更不是由人口非正常死亡造成的。

Due to the factors described in Conclusions 3 and 4, during 1960-1964 China’s population figure (apart from natural growths) seems to have decreased by 33.94 million. (Due to 11.62 million duplicate and erroneous hukou registers being removed, 7.5 million deaths that were originally not reported being registered, and 14.82 million people who failed to register their new hukou) This is the real reason for the seemingly huge decrease in China’s population figure at this time. All of these decreases are due to decreases in the statistical data, but they do not correspond to a decrease in the actual population. These decreases have no relation to the actual change in our country’s population, let alone due to millions of unnatural deaths.

以上事实充分证明,国内外一些人把这一减少解释为是由三年困难时期“饿死三千万”造成的,是完全错误的。 在“饿死三千万”这一说法的传播过程中,以科尔教授为代表的国外一些学者的研究、国内某课题组的专门研究,以及杨继绳、金辉、曹树基、丁抒等人的所谓研究起了极为重要的作用。其中杨继绳等人所谓研究的实质就是把由于各种复杂原因造成的我国(或各个地区)三年困难时期人口统计数据的减少,全部解释为是由人口非正常死亡造成的。 我们从学术的角度对上述所有这些研究逐一进行了分析,发现这些研究都存在着重大的学术错误,因此他们的观点都是不能成立的。

The facts described above demonstrate that it is completely wrong for some people both within China and abroad to explain this population decrease as due to “30 million people starving to death” during the Three Year Famine Period. During the process in which the idea of “30 million people starving to death” spread widely, the research represented by foreign academics such as Professor Kohl and also by Chinese academics in special research groups including people like Yang Jisheng, Jin Hui, Cao Shuji and Ding Yu had a very strong impact.

More specifically the so-called “research” by people like Yang Jisheng reached the conclusion that the huge decrease in China’s population statistical figures during this period, which is actually due to various very complex reasons, can be completely explained by the abnormal deaths of huge numbers of people. From a scientific and academic perspective we have analysed these claims, and found that all of these so-called “research” possessed huge methodological flaws, and therefore none of their conclusions can be considered true.

三年困难时期,我国一些地区确实出现了“营养性死亡”现象,并且在以河南省信阳专区为代表的极少数地区,这种问题还非常严重。我们利用几种不同的方法对三年困难时期我国的“营养性死亡”人数进行了估算,估计出这一时期的“营养性死亡”人数在250万以下。 这里所说的“营养性死亡”主要指的是营养性疾病(浮肿病等)死亡、营养性疾病合并其他疾病死亡,也包括“完全性饥饿死亡”(即“饿死”)。

During the Three Year Famine Period, there were indeed some “nutrition-related deaths” in some regions of China, and in very few areas such as the Xinyang Special District in Henan Province, such issues were especially severe. Through various methods we have estimated the number of “nutrition-related deaths” during this period, and this figure would be no more than 2.5 million. “Nutrition-related deaths” as described here would include deaths either partially or completely due to diseases caused by the lack of food, as well as people literally starving to death.

在上述“营养性死亡”的数字中,“饿死”(完全性饥饿死亡)只是其中的一小部分。 在研究中,我们专门查证了我国这一时期死亡率最高的600多个县的地方志和其他大量资料,查证的结果证实了我们的这一估算是比较符合实际的。 站在今天的角度看,那三年间出现250万人“营养性死亡”,既是天灾,也是人祸,历史的教训值得深刻汲取;但是,片面地、无端地夸大非正常死亡人数,并不是严谨的学风,更无助于正确地总结历史的经验教训,坚定今日的前行方向。

It is also the case that among the “nutrition-related deaths” described here, people literally starving to death only constitutes a small minority. In our research, we specifically looked into massive amounts of official documents in over 600 counties in which the death rate during this period was the highest, and our results has generally verified our estimated figures. From today’s perspective, one should say that 2.5 million “nutrition-related deaths” during those three years were the result of both “natural disasters” and “human failings”, and there are indeed historical lessons to be learned here. However, to partially and groundlessly exaggerate the number of deaths is not a scientific approach, and cannot contribute to learning from historical experiences in order to march ahead more determinedly today.
(作者系江苏师范大学特聘教授)

(The Author is a Professor at Jiangsu Normal University)

SEE ALSO:

http://democracyandclasstruggle.blogspot.co.uk/2016/05/sun-jingxian-and-two-line-struggle-over.html


http://democracyandclasstruggle.blogspot.co.uk/2015/01/why-is-battle-for-chinas-past-relevant.html

http://democracyandclasstruggle.blogspot.co.uk/2016/05/anti-dikotter-for-marxism-leninism.html


Dispute over the Great Leap Forward by Mobo Gao (Extract from Why the Battle for China'a Past is Relevant)

I will deal with an issue that is arguably most damaging to the Mao legacy, the starvation caused by the Great Leap Forward. In my case study of Gao Village I have made it clear that though not even one person died from starvation in the village, there was obvious shortage of food and obvious hunger.

There is no doubt that there was a famine during 1959 and 1960, but there are controversies on the origin, cause and effect of the Great Leap Forward policies.

It is generally assumed that many people would have lived longer without the famine and many would have been born had there not been the famine.


However, in what way and to what extent China’s population growth was affected by the Great Leap Forward is being hotly debated even today.

China’s official population statistics published in the early 1980s seem to show that there was a population decline in that period, instead of growth on the basis of normal death and birth rates, and that this was in the range of several to tens of millions of people.

But the Chinese official statistics are based on data collected on household registration. There can be errors and fraud in household registration during the period for two important reasons.


First, the data could not be complete and could be erroneous because the household registration system (hukou) was yet in the process of being established and it would take years to make it work properly.

Secondly, the Great Leap Forward policies involved huge internal migration, first from rural to urban areas, as industrialization was expanding, and then from urban to rural areas as industrialization was contracting in the face of shortages  of grain and failure of some foolish policies such as backyard iron and steel manufacturing. 

During these years households might have failed to register when they moved back to rural areas (Sun 2014). Because the population base of China is so huge that a tiny percentage of non-registration means large absolute numbers.

The exact death toll of the Great Leap Forward could never be established because there were no comprehensive records.


All proposed numbers are guesses  based on assumptions and different methods (Yang 2013). However, what is clear is that the more one is anti-Mao, anti-socialist China, and anti-communist the higher the number one is likely to propose or to accept.

It is also worth remembering that in recent centuries the Chinese have been haunted by hunger and starvation. As foreign correspondents, missionaries and travellers witnessed before the establishment of the PRC, China was constantly devastated by natural disasters and starvation on a large scale which sometimes  claimed millions of lives.


The large-scale famine which took place during 1959 and 1960 was the first, last and only one in the whole history of the Mao era and the whole history of the PRC.

This cannot be just luck or accident. It was the result of decades of hard work that built a solid infrastructure of irrigation and management of rivers and lakes by massive manpower mobilized  by Mao’s campaign as well agricultural technological breakthroughs that are mentioned in the above text.

REMEMBER 50th ANNIVERSARY OF CULTURAL REVOLUTION
http://democracyandclasstruggle.blogspot.co.uk/2016/05/study-and-learn-celebrating-50-years-of.html

Rodong Sinmun on South Korea "Policy towards North"



Spokesman for CCNR Slams S. Korean Authorities' "Policy towards North"
 
A spokesman of the Consultative Council for National Reconciliation of the DPRK issued a statement on Oct. 13 as regards the fact that the south Korean authorities are persisting in their fantastic "policy towards the north" despite the strong protest and denunciation by people of various circles.

The DPRK gave the south Korean authorities advice enough to understand that their "policy towards the north", keynote of which is "dialogue in parallel with the enforcement of sanctions and pressure", is utterly infeasible, contradictory and sheer sophism and little short of a copy of the anti-reunification and anti-national confrontation policy pursued by the conservative regime.

However, the south Korean authorities further bedeviled the north-south relations by more persistently resorting to the moves for putting sanctions and pressure upon the DPRK to pleasure the U.S., the statement says, and goes on:

Their behaviors go to prove that they are only keen on keeping their face and staying in power, utterly indifferent to the demands of the candlelight demonstrators and all compatriots for the improvement of the inter-Korean relations and peace on the Korean Peninsula.

What is more ridiculous is that they are dreaming about compelling the north to come out for dialogue with sanctions and pressure.

This is nothing but revelation of their calculation that they would regard fellow countrymen as enemy.

There is a limit to our patience.

Explicitly speaking once again, pro-U.S. activities and improvement of the north-south relations and sanctions and pressure and dialogue can never go together.

The south Korean authorities should draw a lesson from their miserable position of isolation.

The conservative group is given a breathing spell and even censuring the pro-democracy and pro-reform forces at a time when the ruling forces are at a loss, pursuing their fantastic "policy towards the north." They should clearly understand that it is an unpardonable crime against the nation to make a mess of the results of the candlelight actions.

If they continue behaving imprudently, they will bring only a horrible disaster, far from improved north-south relations.

They should come to their senses, though belatedly, and make a bold decision to fundamentally change the "policy towards the north" as demanded by the people and take to the road for the nation and independent reunification, not toeing the U.S. line.

Rodong News Team

Saturday, October 14, 2017

The CUP sends a letter to Puigdemont in which it demands, without further delay, the proclamation of the Republic of Catalonia


Democracy and Class Struggle hails the Catalan Republic in formation.

The CUP sends a letter to Puigdemont in which it demands, without further delay, the proclamation of the Republic of Catalonia

With its usual political coherence, La CUP has asked Pigdemont, by sending a letter, to proclaim without further delay the Catalan Republic.

The anti-capitalist formation said that last October 10 "missed a great opportunity", and defends that, in the face of the impossibility of finding international support, it should be taken into account the more than two million people who voted in the referendum of 1 of October.

"Those who defended their schools against the violence that displayed military and police occupation and those who were beaten, injured, humiliated and frightened by the National Police and the Civil Guard," says the CUP, "are already Republic." 

That is why its militants ask the President to respond to the call of Rajoy with the unequivocal will of the Catalans and Catalans.

In his letter, CUP tells Puigdemont that "people are the only solid structure that this country has ... Our strength is the people, their needs and their hopes". It also reminds him of the advantages that the Republic supposes and which is the only guarantee that the Catalan people have to "stand as an actor willing to protect the civil and political rights of the population that are still seriously threatened."

They also tell him that "only through the proclamation of the Republic will we be able to respect what the majority expressed at the polls." And that "to endorse all the threats, contempt and repression" of the Government and suppose to return to the Spanish constitutional legality "with which the social majority has already broken."

"To remain unmoved by their threats, their denials and their authority, will not allow us to exist as a people, will not allow us to govern or advance in the pursuit of more rights and freedoms," they argue, adding that although a possible Catalan Republic does not have the support of other States and markets, yes that would count on the support of the people.

The Spanish Government is not willing to negotiate the start of a referendum agreed and the result is binding; has been saying it forever and, to this day, maintains its unmoved posture. He says that they will only sit down and speak in accordance with Spanish law, which is the same as saying no to the referendum.

As it is known, Puigdemónt declared the Republic of Catalonia but, soon, it suspended it in order to favor a dialogue with the Government. This has not happened and, apparently, will not happen.

From the first moment of this confused maneuver, the CUP disagreed with it, and also strongly criticized the change of script made at the last minute.

But a few days have passed and, among the independence movement, it is no longer just the anti-capitalist formation who asks the President to activate the Declaration signed by 72 deputies. Now also the Catalan National Assembly -AN-. The secretariat met yesterday and decided to urge the Parliament to lift the suspension of the Declaration of Independence. And he based his decision on "Spain's refusal to propose any dialogue". So they ask Puigdemont and the Government to implement "the Law of Legal and Fundamental Transiency of the Republic".

Òmnium asked Wednesday for Puigdemont a "reasonable" deadline for effective mediation and, if that does not succeed, "declare independence definitively"
.
For their part, ERC sectors are also pushing in the same direction. These argue that they have not come here to get off the train at the last minute, and they think that all the consequences must be assumed.

From this formation, Dolors Bassa, Minister of Labor, Social and Family Affairs, proposes that the Declaration of Independence signed by the 72 deputies be sent to Rajoy.

Following the same line, Gabriel Rufian wrote yesterday on Twitter: "The only thing I know is that we owe those who put their bodies and their hearts for this in the street. Until the end".

There is not much time to know the decision finally adopted Puigdemont; the term given by the Government of Rajoy concludes next Monday.

Source - http://dazibaorojo08.blogspot.co.uk/